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Radio Propagation : Space Weather : Sunspot Cycle Information

a live reference resource site for solar and geomagnetic data and images
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NEW! ACE HF Pro
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Best ionospheric ray-tracing software for Radio Operators
PropLab Pro Ray-tracing Software


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Hot: STD Space Weather Course
This is an excellent self-study course on Space Weather and Radio Propagation. This is a very in-depth and rich course that will equip you with the knowledge you need for understanding Space Weather, the ionosphere, how radio signals propagate via the ionosphere, and much more. Check it out!
STD Space Weather Course


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Take a listen to the Space Weather Podcast!

NW7US Space Weather / Radio Proapgation Podcast; E4 - Subject: No more sunspots by 2015!? It is possible, if the trend revealed in current sunspot research at Kitt Peak, AZ, continues. Listen now!

Podcast home: NW7US Podcast


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Gain the on-air edge: This article explains how the ANTENNA is the key! -> Read this introduction to Antenna Modeling


STEREO 3D

STEREO 3D IMAGE

X-ray Conditions (Flares) 5-min.

X-ray plot

X-ray Conditions (Flares) 1-min.

X-ray plot

Geomagnetic Conditions (Kp)

plot of Kp

Satellite Environment Plot:


Satellite Environment Plot





Main Propagation Menu:

+ Sunspot Cycle/MUF/FOT Tables
+ Current Optimal Frequencies
+ Aurora Resources

How-To Articles:

- Is HF Propagation Reciprocal?
- De-mystifying HF Radio Propagation and Modeling

Check out the ACE-HF propagation software - the latest is version 2.05. ACE-HF is propagation forecasting and modeling for Amateur Radio as well as for Shortwave radio Listening and general HF operation. This software is even used by the military and other clients around the world. This software is developed and maintained by the same engineers that keep VOACAP up-to-date. As a result, this software is the most accurate user interface integrated with VOACAP. CHECK IT OUT, TODAY. This software is the most accurate modeling software available, and is endorsed by NW7US. Read the details to find out why.




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Warnings/Alerts issued
in the last 24 hours, if any:

(Key: NOAA Scales)



[ live aurora display ]
[ auroral power maps ]

[ d-layer conditions ]

[ latest solar images 1 ]
[ latest solar images 2 ]
[ latest solar images 3 ]

[ active solar regions ]
[ current solar region image ]

[ What is a flare and its class? ]

Recent Space Environment Reports:

+ Reports of Solar & Geophysical Activity
+ Solar & Geophysical Activity Summaries

From the Space Environment Center:

Solar X-ray Flux

+ A 3 day plot of 5-minute solar X-ray flux values measured on the GOES 8 and 10 satellites.
+ A 6-hour 1-min Solar X-ray Flux plot

Satellite Environment Plot

[ Proton Flux ] [Electron Flux ]
[ GEOS Hp ] [ Estimated Kp ]

Additional Resources

+ SpaceW.com Aurora Network
+ D-Layer Absorption Conditions/Predictions
+ 160 Meter Propagation Forecast
+ Solar Physics Department of the Royal Observatory of Belgium, the official keepers of sunspot data.




Solar Activity Forecast
The Forecast of Solar Activity as well as Geomagnetic Activity

Probability of Flares
and Proton Events
EVENT
(Flare/Proton)
0-24 hrs
24-48 hrs
M-class
50%
50%
X-class
05%
05%
Proton
01%
01%
Geomagnetic Activity Probabilities

Middle latitudes
High latitudes

0-24 hrs
24-48 hrs
0-24 hrs
24-48 hrs
Active
01%
01%
01%
01%
Minor Storm
01%
01%
01%
01%
Major-severe Storm
01%
01%
01%
01%



Solar Sunspot Cycle 24 Progress

Solar Cycle 24 Smoothed Sunspot Progress
Solar Cycle 24 10.7-cm Monthly Progress
[ Solar Cycle Details ]

Do you want the latest solar conditions sent to you as an RSS feed? Click: XML RSS propagation feed

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This RSS is Validated:
This Propagation RSS Feed is a Valid RSS feed.

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This page was rendered on 16-Apr-14 0411 UTC.
This page was first created in 1998, by Tomas David Hood (NW7US)

Current Sunspot Cycle 24 Activity and Space Weather

Please share this page:
 

Sun Spots: 149 as of 04/15/2014 :: 10.7-cm Flux: 162 SFU
(SFU=Solar Flux Units)

NOAA Scales Activity
Range 1 (minor) to 5 (extreme)
NOAA Scale
Past 24 hrs
Current


Planetary A-index (Ap): 6 | Planetary K-index (Kp): 1
Solar Wind: 330 km/s at 3.0 protons/cm3, Bz is -2.0 nT
(Apr 16, 2014 at 0404 UT)

X-ray Solar Flares:
6h hi [C1.8][1130Z 10/26] 24h hi [C1.8][1130Z 10/26]

Background X-ray Level, Last Six Days

Apr 15 2014 :: B5.8
Apr 14 2014 :: B6.0
Apr 13 2014 :: B4.4
Apr 12 2014 :: B5.7
Apr 11 2014 :: B6.2
Apr 10 2014 :: B8.0


Check out the current Aurora Oval and activity.

If you are using software utilities such as Ace-HF, that require a "smoothed" sunspot number
(Referred to as the SSN), or the smoothed 10.7-cm flux index,
use the following predicted values in this table:

To understand more about the Maximum Usable Frequencies, and related
science, please read the MUF Basics Page.


Global HF Propagation Conditions
Global HF Propagation Conditions for 0300Z on 16 Apr, 2014
High Latitude: Normal
Middle Latitude: Normal
Low Latitude: Normal

Geomagnetic Latitude Ranges:
High: 60-90 degrees
Middle: 20-60 degrees
Low: 0-20 degrees


At about 2030 UTC on August 31, 2012, a beautiful, huge solar filament broke away from the Sun. Watch this movie:



At 0805 UTC, on 9 August 2011, a strong magnitude X6.9 X-ray flare -- the strongest yet in this current solar cycle (Cycle 24) -- erupted on the northwestern solar limb. Here is a HD Movie of the event:



Videos of Interest - Space Weather, Solar Dynamics Observatory, STEREO, and more... from the NW7US YouTube Channel. (Click on the small image to launch the video...)

Video: Voyager Finds Magnetic Foam at Solar Systems Edge
Video: Voyager Finds Magnetic Foam at Solar Systems Edge



Video: Zoom View of Prominence Eruption and X-Ray Flare - M2.5 Magnitude - June 7 2011
Video: Zoom View of Prominence Eruption and X-Ray Flare - M2.5 Magnitude - June 7 2011

Video: X-Ray Flare, Coronal Mass Ejection, Proton Storm - M2.5 Magnitude - June 7 2011
Video: X-Ray Flare, Coronal Mass Ejection, Proton Storm - M2.5 Magnitude - June 7 2011 (Close-up of the video, above)

Video: Stunning Close-up View of M3 X-Ray Flare 24 February 2011
Video: Stunning Close-up View of M3 X-Ray Flare 24 February 2011



Video: June 2011 20-meter (14-Mhz) JT65A Coverage Map of NW7US Radio Signal
Video: June 2011 20-meter (14-Mhz) JT65A Coverage Map of NW7US Radio Signal



The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Latest Solar Images
Click on an image for full-sized view





SDO - Solar Dynamics Observatory     SDO - Solar Dynamics Observatory

D Region Absorption Predictions (D-RAP) Global Map

Map, Above: Conditions in the D region of the ionosphere have a dramatic effect on high frequency (HF) communications and low frequency (LF) navigation systems. The global D Region Absorption Predictions (D-RAP) depicts the D region at high latitudes where it is driven by particles as well as low latitudes, where photons cause the prompt changes.

Note: At times, images may appear broken or missing, when SDO is working on the AIA/HMI instruments.


The NW7US Current Sunspot and Geophysical Activity Report
The observations, prognastications, and comments by NW7US
NW7US is Tomas David Hood, Propagation and Space Weather Columnist
for CQ Communications

More about Background X-rays

The hard X-ray energy present from the wavelengths of 1 to 8 Angstroms provide the most effective ionizing energy throughout all of the ionospheric layers in our atmosphere. The GEOS satellites measure these wavelengths and the resulting measurements are reported as the "background X-ray level" throughout the day. A daily average is reported, as well.

Just like X-ray flares, the background hard X-ray level is measured in watts per square meter (W/m2), reported using the categories, A, B, C, M, and X. These letters are multipliers; each class has a peak flux ten times greater than the preceding one. Within a class there is a linear scale from 1 to 9.

If one records the daily background X-ray levels for the course of a sunspot cycle, one would discover that the background X-ray levels remained at the A class level during the sunspot cycle minumum. During the rise and fall of a solar cycle, the background X-ray energy levels remained mostly in the B range. During peak solar cycle periods, the background energy reached the C and sometimes even M levels.

Armed with this information, can we discover any clues as to the current status of Sunspot Cycle 24? Below is a graph plotting the background hard X-ray energy reported by the GEOS satellites since the end of Sunspot Cycle 22. Clearly, we see a noticeable rise in Cycle 24 activity. We're seeing the energy mostly in the B level more often, supporting the view that Cycle 24 is alive and moving along toward an eventual sunspot cycle peak in several years.

Overall, the monthly average background 'hard' X-ray level is rising (as seen by the following plot), showing a change from deep solar cycle minimum. We are certainly in the rising phase of Sunspot Cycle 24. While it has been a slow up-tick over the last eighteen months, I expect to see a more rapid rise during mid to late 2011.

Background X-ray (1 to 8 Angstrom) Plot



Highlights of Solar and Geomagnetic Activity
Covering the period: 07 - 13 April 2014

Solar activity was low. The largest flare of the week was a C9, with no optical counterpart, produced by Region 2035 (S18, L=222, class/area=Eai/210 on 13 Apr) on 11 Apr at 1124 UTC. The same region produced a C5 flare at 11/1501 UTC. A small CME, most likely associated with the C9 event, was visible in LASCO C2 coronagraph imagery at 11/1212 UTC but was directed well south and east of the ecliptic plane. A much larger CME associated with the C5 flare was observed in LASCO C2 imagery at 11/1448 UTC. The CME was also on the east limb and the majority of the ejecta was directed away from Earth. Region 2035 began as a plage area on 09 Apr and by the 11th had grown to a Dao Beta-type group with 2 spots. It developed a beta-gamma magnetic configuration on the 12th.

In addition to CMEs associated with the week's largest flares, others accompanied filament eruptions. A 9 degree filament eruption was observed near S23E25 at 10/0004 UTC. An associated CME occurred off the southeast limb with an estimated speed of 298 km/s. Around the same time, Region 2031 (N03, L=30, class/area=Dao/50 on 08 April) produced a C1/Sf flare at 10/0013 UTC and a slow, westward-directed coronal mass ejection (CME) with coronal dimming visible in SDO/AIA imagery. Analysis suggested a speed near 330 km/s. A Type II radio sweep (1109 km/s) was also observed between 10/0010-0022 UTC . A 14 degree filament centered near S35W48 disappeared at 10/0622 UTC with no apparent CME in LASCO imagery. Neither these CMEs, nor others occurring throughout the week, were judged to be particularly geoeffective.

No proton events were observed at geosynchronous orbit, however, the week began with slightly elevated flux levels (<1 pfu) in the wake of an M6 flare the previous week. By 09 April, flux had returned to background levels.

The greater than 2 MeV electron flux at geosynchronous orbit was normal to moderate throughout the week.

Geomagnetic field activity began the week at unsettled to active levels on 07 April attributed to the muted effects of transient features. Activity remained at quiet levels from 08 April through late on 11 April. Late on the 10th, around 1928 UTC, there was a modest increase in solar wind speed from 350-400 km/s. The brief episode of increased winds was followed by a jump in density and accompanied by fluctuations in Phi angle. Over the next 36 hours, Phi exhibited a smooth rotation from a positive to a negative orientation. Bz began to plunge southward around 11/0940 UTC, reaching a minimum of about -10 nT by 12/0800 UTC. Bt reached a maximum near 12 nT by 12/1406 UTC. Throughout the 11th and 12th, solar wind speed continued to decline, reaching a minimum of 316 km/s at 12/1331 UTC. The planetary geomagnetic field responded to the nearly 24 hours of southward Bz with minor storm conditions (Kp=5) from 00-09 UTC on 12 April and a major storm period observed at College (Fairbanks), AK. The remainder of the 12th saw quiet to unsettled conditions. Late on the 12th, temperature and wind speed began to rise signaling the end of the transient feature and the beginning of the influence of a weak negative polarity cornal hole high speed stream.Active conditions returned for the first two synoptic periods of the13th followed by quiet to unsettled levels of activity.



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View of numbered sunspot regions and plages (if any)
Source: http://www.solarmonitor.org/.
(Click for large view)

Active Regions and Plages

Active sunspot regions, and plages, identified by SIDC

SIDC Solar Disc with active regions and plages


Latest GOES 15 Image of the Sun

Latest GOES-15 Image of the Sun


STEREO IMAGES
STEREO Behind Image
What is coming
SOHO EIT 195 Image
Current View
STEREO Ahead Image
What was...


Real Time Solor Wind and Aurora:

On 2014 Apr 16 0408Z: Bz: -2.4 nT
Bx: 2.7 nT | By: -2.5 nT | Total: 4.4 nT
Most recent satellite polar pass:
Centered on 04/16/2014 : 0138 UTC
Aurora Activity Level was 2 at 0138 UTC
visit noaa for latest.



[ See this current Aurora Oval Map ]

This is a video of the simulation from May 27-28, 2011, showing
the Geomagnetic disturbance caused by the solar wind




All NICT images are Copyright@NICT,
used by express, written permission from NICT




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Space Weather and Propagation Forecast
Prepared by the US Dept. of Commerce, NOAA,
and the Space Weather Prediction Center

Three Day Forecast of Solar and Geomagnetic Activity
(as of 2200Z on 14 Apr 2014)

Solar Forecast:

Solar activity is expected to be low with a chance for M-class flares on days one, two, and three (15 Apr, 16 Apr, 17 Apr).

Geomagnetic Forecast:

The geomagnetic field is expected to be at quiet to unsettled levels on day one (15 Apr) and quiet levels on days two and three (16 Apr, 17 Apr).


Forecast of Solar and Geomagnetic Activity
14 April - 10 May 2014

Solar activity is expected to be low with a chance for moderate events throughout the forecast period. There is a chance for high levels of activity on 25 April through 08 May with the return of Old Region 2027.

No proton events are expected at geosynchronous orbit.

The greater than 2 MeV electron flux at geosynchronous orbit is expected to be at normal to moderate levels.

Geomagnetic field activity is expected to be at quiet to unsettled levels, in the absence of any transient features, throughout the forecast period.




Real-time foF2 map from IPS (Ionospheric Prediction Service), Australian Space Weather Agency

foF2 Map from IPS, Australia

Space Weather Page



Click on image to
view larger versions

The following images
are from SOHO

C2 LASCO Image
C3 LASCO Image

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Additional Views of the Sun

Be sure to check the Date shown in each photo - is it today's date?
(click to enlarge)

Current Numbered Sunspots / MDI MagnetogramCatania Solar Disc

H-Alpha View 1H-Alpha View 2



Space Weather Information Monitor Software - sample screen shot Interested in keeping tabs on ALL of the current Space Weather information? Check out the Space Weather Information Monitor Software (SWIM) - support the NW7US / HFRadio.org Propagation Resource Center and purchase your copy of SWIM, today.

With SWIM, you can monitor, display, animate or print to your printer over 200 default space-weather related Internet resources, in real-time. You can use SWIM to expand and manage THOUSANDS of additional internet resources quickly and easily. Simply cut and paste Internet URLs of resources you find interesting and SWIM will immediately begin managing those resources for you. Retrieve the latest space weather forecasts and summary reports. Add any number of other textual reports you find on the Internet.

Find out the full details about the Space Weather Information Monitor Software (SWIM).








Purchase the STD Internet Space Weather & Radio Propagation Forecasting Course


Solar Terrestrial Dispatch (STD) is a world-leader in space weather forecasting services, as was demonstrated in late October and early November 2003 (Oler, C., "Prediction Performance of Space Weather Forecast Centers during the Extreme Space Weather Events of October and November 2003," published in the peer-reviewed scientific journal "Space Weather" by the American Geophysical Union in 2004). A copy of this paper is available here.

STD expertise is used to provide high-quality space weather forecast services to many electrical power companies across North America, guidance to spacecraft operators and consultation to many others.

STD has developed a special space weather course designed to teach individuals without any background how to predict space weather (see below). The STD Space Weather Course was the recipient of the Study-Web Academic Excellence award.

The course is available on-line as a small group of downloadable Adobe Acrobat Reader documents comprising over 630 pages of printed material (for sample pages, click here). You can therefore choose to study the material on your computer or print it out for study.

The course, if you choose the option, also includes the STD workhorse, Space Weather Information Monitor (SWIM) software, which is the most comprehensive space and weather information monitor in the world. The course (if you choose the option, below) also includes the STD's powerful and popular Proplab-Pro HF Radio Propagation Laboratory software! All software products are optional elaborate tools that will contribute to your application of the knowledge obtained through this course.

Purchasing the Course

Please choose one of the following course packages.
  • Purchase: The course alone (no software), delivered over the Internet (as a download).

      Now: $200.00 - normally $250 USD
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  • Purchase: The course with all the software, delivered over the Internet (as a download).

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NOTE: After you finish ordering, through PayPal, please allow me time to process your order. I am not always in front of my computer, so it may take a while for me to finish the processing of your order. I shall e-mail you the moment I have processed the order, and will give you specific directions on how to download the Course file(s). PLEASE BE PATIENT WITH ME!

A list of the topics covered in this home-study course include:
  • The Sun
    • Basics of the Sun
    • Sunspots
      • Types of Sunspots
      • Sunspot Magnetic Fields
    • Solar Radiation and Radio Emissions
    • Solar Cycles
    • Techniques for Modelling Solar Cycles
    • Sources of Information and Imagery
  • Interplanetary Space
    • The Solar Wind
    • Magnetic Fields
    • Heliospheric Current Sheet
    • Solar Sector Structures
  • The Earth
    • Magnetosphere
      • The quiet magnetosphere
      • The disturbed magnetosphere
      • Understanding Magnetic Indices
      • Magnetic Storms
        • Sudden Storm Commencements (SSCs)
        • Gradual Storm Commencements
      • Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs)
        • Effects on Electrical Hydro Systems
        • Effects on Other Long Conductors
    • Ionosphere
      • Formation of Ionospheric Layers
      • Factors Affecting Ionospheric Layers
  • Solar Disturbances
    • Transient Solar Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs)
      • Types and Structures of Coronal Mass Ejections
      • Understanding the Importance of CME Structures
      • Inferring CME Structures from Available Solar Data
      • Coronal Mass Ejection Detection Methods
      • Using IMPACT (software) to Aid in CME Disturbance Predictions
      • Solar Cycle Dependencies
    • Solar Flares
      • Basic Nature of Flares
      • Types of Flares
      • Flare Rating Systems
      • Significance of Proton Flares
      • Ground Level Events (GLEs)
      • Fast Transit Events
      • Interpreting Magnetograms
      • Determining Magnetic Shear and Flare Susceptability
      • Solar Flare (and Proton Flare) Prediction Techniques
      • Solar Flare Related Coronal Mass Ejection Prediction Techniques
      • Sources of Solar Flare Information
    • Solar Coronal Holes
      • Coronal Hole Basics
      • Recurrence
      • Solar Cycle Correlations
      • Associations with Near-Relativistic Electrons
      • Coronal Hole Related Disturbance Prediction Techniques
    • Filament Eruptions
      • Filaments and Prominences
      • Eruptive and Non-Eruptive Activity
      • Filament-Associated Coronal Mass Ejections
      • Filament-Related Disturbance Prediction Techniques
  • Auroral Activity
    • Basic Theory of the Northern/Southern Lights
    • Behavioral Characteristics of the Auroral Ovals
    • Sensitivity to Solar Disturbances
    • Affects on Satellite Health and Radio Communications
    • Mathematical Models of the Auroral Zones
    • Auroral Activity Prediction Techniques
    • Information Sources
  • Conditions Affecting Satellite Health
    • Atmospheric Drag
    • Surface Charging Anomalies
    • Deep Dialectric Charging Anomalies
    • Interplanetary Shocks
    • Magnetopause Crossings
  • Postulated Sun/Earth Climate Connections
    • Possible Long-Term Climatic Trends
      • Rainfall
      • Temperatures
      • Atmospheric Pressure
      • Storm Tracks
      • Ozone Correlations
    • Possible Short-Term Meteorological Trends
      • Pressure and Winds
      • Lightning
      • Storm Systems
      • Ozone Responses
  • Radio Propagation
    • Basic Theory (Non-Technical)
      • Characteristics and Components of Radio Signals
      • Understanding Plasmas
      • Importance of Electron Collisions
      • Appleton/Hartree Contributions
      • Signal Polarization and Coupling
      • Ionospheric Absorption
        • Deviative Absorption
        • Non-Deviative Absorption
      • Fading
      • Multipathing
      • Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances
      • Solar Related Disturbances
      • Structure of the Ionosphere
        • Ionospheric Layers
        • Importance of Sporadic-E
        • Effects of Spread-F
        • Solar-Cycle Dependencies
        • Models of the Ionosphere
          • Simple Mathematical Models
          • Numerical Maps
          • CCIR
          • URSI
          • The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI)
          • Others
        • Probing the Ionosphere
        • Probing Techniques
        • Probing Instruments
        • Sources of Ionosonde Information
    • Basic Ray-Tracing Concepts
      • Ordinary vs Extraordinary Signals
      • Becoming Familiar with Ray-Tracing Software
    • Ray-Tracing in Three-Dimensions
      • Ray-Tracing Software Considerations
      • Preparing for 3D Ray-Tracings
      • Performing 3D Ray-Tracings
      • Studying 3D Ray-Tracing Results
    • Vertical Radio Signal Propagation
      • Signal Reflection Behavior
      • Critical Frequencies
      • Ray-Tracing Vertically-Incident Signals
    • Oblique Radio Signal Propagation
      • Signal Refraction/Reflection Characteristics
      • Effects of Geomagnetic Activity
      • Effects of Solar Activity
      • Ray-Tracing Obliquely Incident Radio Signals
      • Determination of Maximum Usable Frequencies
        • Simple Empirical Methods
        • Ray-Tracing Techniques
      • Effects of Sporadic-E
      • Non-Great-Circle (NGC) Propagation
        • Responsible Conditions
        • Compensation Methods
        • Ray-Tracing Techniques to Analyze NGC Propagation
      • Chordal-Hop and Inter-Layer Ducting Propagation
        • Advantages and Disadvantages
        • Analysis using Ray-Tracing Techniques
      • Searching for and Exploiting Exotic Propagation Paths
        • Properties of Exotic Paths
        • Searching for Exotic Paths using 3D Ray-Tracing Techniques
        • Determining the Most Reliable Exotic Radio Paths
    • Ionospheric Disturbances
      • Solar Related Disturbances
        • Solar Flares and Related Coronal Mass Ejections
        • Coronal Holes and High Speed Solar Wind Streams
        • Filament Related Coronal Mass Ejections
        • Impact of Flare Related Radio Noise Bursts
      • Short Wave Fadeouts
      • Sudden Phase Anomalies
      • Sudden Frequency Deviations
      • Devastating Effects of Polar Cap Absorption
      • Disturbances and their Effects on Satellite Communications
  • Radio Propagation Prediction Methods
    • Short-Term Forecasting Techniques
    • Medium-Term Forecasting Techniques
    • Long-Term Forecasting Techniques
    • Sources of Forecasting Information
  • Applied Forecasting Techniques
    • Climatology
    • Pattern Recognition
    • Compiling Necessary Information
    • Exploiting Databases
    • Computer Related Aids
    • Studying Real-Life Examples
    • Developing Experience and "Intuition"
  • Field Experience
    • The STD SW Course presents you with some specific historic real-life scenarios. Using the information and techniques studied in this course, you are asked to develop your own space-weather and radio-propagation predictions. The actual real-life impacts are then studied and compared with your forecasts.
    • The Course presents you with several hypothetical (possible future) examples and ask you to develop your own forecasts.
  • Course Completed


Although this course is largely self-taught, STD will provide support if you run into difficulties. There are no prerequisites.



Check out these books on Radio Propagation:

+ The New Shortwave Propagation Handbook (Paperback) - by George Jacobs, Theodore J. Cohen, R. B. Rose. The NEW Shortwave Progagation Handbook may well be the only book you'll need on the subject of ionospheric propagation! It is a "must read" for Radio Amateurs, Shortwave Listeners, and radio communicators of any type who need to make the most productive use of the radio spectrum, regardless of the time of day, the season of the year, or the state of the sunspot cycle. It will become your ever-present companion a the operating table as you master the art of shortwave radio progagation.

+ How Radio Signals Work (Paperback) - by Jim Sinclair. This book provides a basic understanding of the way radio signals work-without becoming bogged down with the technicalities. It covers all kinds of radio signal types--including mobile communications, short-wave, satellite, and microwave. No detailed knowledge of electronics or mathematics is required. A-Z coverage of radio signals including satellites, mobile communications, and short-wave radio. No math or electronics background necessary.

+ Introduction to RF Propagation (Hardcover) - by John S. Seybold. This book provides readers with a solid understanding of the concepts involved in the propagation of electromagnetic waves and of the commonly used modeling techniques. While many books cover RF propagation, most are geared to cellular telephone systems and, therefore, are limited in scope. This title is comprehensive-it treats the growing number of wireless applications that range well beyond the mobile telecommunications industry, including radar and satellite communications.

I write the propagation columns for the following magazines:

CQ Magazine CQ Magazine America's fastest growing magazine for the active ham radio operator. CQ is the world's leading independent magazine devoted to amateur radio. For more than a half-century, CQ has been on ham radio's leading edge -- the first to promote mobile operating (in the 1950s), semiconductors (in the 1960s) and packet radio -- the original e-mail (in the 1980s). The amateur satellite program got its start with an idea in the pages of CQ!

CQ VHF Magazine CQ VHF Magazine It is back! May 2002 saw the return of this quarterly magazines that focuses on amateur radio above 50 MHz. Articles and columns target both the beginner as well as the expert.

Popular Communications Magazine Popular Communications Magazine Exciting reading for the shortwave and scanner listener. It features authoritative information on scanner monitoring of police, fire, utility and aircraft transmissions as well as short wave listening, monitoring short wave digital, fax and teletype broadcasts, cb radio, alternative radio, clandestine radio, telephones and wiretapping, bugging, surveillance, pirate broadcasters, military communications, amateur radio, satellite tv reception, radio history and nostalgia.

Monitoring Times Magazine Monitoring Times Magazine Contains news, information, and tips on getting more out of radio listening. Do you own a radio, a shortwave receiver, a scanning receiver, or a ham radio? Then Monitoring Times® is your magazine! Open a copy of MT, and you will find 92 pages of news, information, and tips on getting more out of your radio listening. In fact, it's the most comprehensive radio hobby magazine in the U.S. Packed with up-to-date information concisely written by the top writers in the field, Monitoring Times® is your foremost guide to profiles of broadcasting and communications installations; home projects; and tips on monitoring everything from air, sea, and space to distant ports of call.



Data and images courtesy of IPS Australia, NOAA, NASA, SWPC, SIDC

Layout, analysis, commentary, and certain forecasts and content is
Copyright, 2013, Tomas David Hood (NW7US), all rights reserved.
No part, except for the space weather 'banners', may be copied without express permission.

Last Update: October 13, 2013