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PropLab Pro Ray-tracing Software


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Hot: STD Space Weather Course
This is an excellent self-study course on Space Weather and Radio Propagation. This is a very in-depth and rich course that will equip you with the knowledge you need for understanding Space Weather, the ionosphere, how radio signals propagate via the ionosphere, and much more. Check it out!
STD Space Weather Course


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Take a listen to the Space Weather Podcast!

NW7US Space Weather / Radio Proapgation Podcast; E4 - Subject: No more sunspots by 2015!? It is possible, if the trend revealed in current sunspot research at Kitt Peak, AZ, continues. Listen now!

Podcast home: NW7US Podcast


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Gain the on-air edge: This article explains how the ANTENNA is the key! -> Read this introduction to Antenna Modeling


STEREO 3D

STEREO 3D IMAGE

X-ray Conditions (Flares) 5-min.

X-ray plot

X-ray Conditions (Flares) 1-min.

X-ray plot

Geomagnetic Conditions (Kp)

plot of Kp

Satellite Environment Plot:


Satellite Environment Plot





Main Propagation Menu:

+ Sunspot Cycle/MUF/FOT Tables
+ Current Optimal Frequencies
+ Aurora Resources

How-To Articles:

- Is HF Propagation Reciprocal?
- De-mystifying HF Radio Propagation and Modeling

Check out the ACE-HF propagation software - the latest is version 2.05. ACE-HF is propagation forecasting and modeling for Amateur Radio as well as for Shortwave radio Listening and general HF operation. This software is even used by the military and other clients around the world. This software is developed and maintained by the same engineers that keep VOACAP up-to-date. As a result, this software is the most accurate user interface integrated with VOACAP. CHECK IT OUT, TODAY. This software is the most accurate modeling software available, and is endorsed by NW7US. Read the details to find out why.




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Warnings/Alerts issued
in the last 24 hours, if any:

(Key: NOAA Scales)

Warning (2310): Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected From: 2014 Sep 03 0530 UTC To: 2014 Sep 03 1400 UTC Condition: Onset


[ live aurora display ]
[ auroral power maps ]

[ d-layer conditions ]

[ latest solar images 1 ]
[ latest solar images 2 ]
[ latest solar images 3 ]

[ active solar regions ]
[ current solar region image ]

[ What is a flare and its class? ]

Recent Space Environment Reports:

+ Reports of Solar & Geophysical Activity
+ Solar & Geophysical Activity Summaries

From the Space Environment Center:

Solar X-ray Flux

+ A 3 day plot of 5-minute solar X-ray flux values measured on the GOES 8 and 10 satellites.
+ A 6-hour 1-min Solar X-ray Flux plot

Satellite Environment Plot

[ Proton Flux ] [Electron Flux ]
[ GEOS Hp ] [ Estimated Kp ]

Additional Resources

+ SpaceW.com Aurora Network
+ D-Layer Absorption Conditions/Predictions
+ 160 Meter Propagation Forecast
+ Solar Physics Department of the Royal Observatory of Belgium, the official keepers of sunspot data.




Solar Activity Forecast
The Forecast of Solar Activity as well as Geomagnetic Activity

Probability of Flares
and Proton Events
EVENT
(Flare/Proton)
0-24 hrs
24-48 hrs
M-class
25%
35%
X-class
01%
05%
Proton
05%
05%
Geomagnetic Activity Probabilities

Middle latitudes
High latitudes

0-24 hrs
24-48 hrs
0-24 hrs
24-48 hrs
Active
05%
05%
05%
05%
Minor Storm
05%
05%
05%
05%
Major-severe Storm
05%
05%
05%
05%



Solar Sunspot Cycle 24 Progress

Solar Cycle 24 Smoothed Sunspot Progress
Solar Cycle 24 10.7-cm Monthly Progress
[ Solar Cycle Details ]

Do you want the latest solar conditions sent to you as an RSS feed? Click: XML RSS propagation feed

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This RSS is Validated:
This Propagation RSS Feed is a Valid RSS feed.

(Use http://hfradio.org/propsupport/prop.rss as your RSS channel url)




This page was rendered on 03-Sep-14 0657 UTC.
This page was first created in 1998, by Tomas David Hood (NW7US)

Current Sunspot Cycle 24 Activity and Space Weather

Please share this page:
 

Sun Spots: 105 as of 09/02/2014 :: 10.7-cm Flux: 136 SFU
(SFU=Solar Flux Units)

NOAA Scales Activity
Range 1 (minor) to 5 (extreme)
NOAA Scale
Past 24 hrs
Current


Planetary A-index (Ap): 10 | Planetary K-index (Kp): 3
Solar Wind: 425 km/s at 3.0 protons/cm3, Bz is -2.0 nT
(Sep 03, 2014 at 0644 UT)

X-ray Solar Flares:
6h hi [C3.7][1310Z 09/02] 24h hi [C3.7][1310Z 09/02]

Background X-ray Level, Last Six Days

Sep 02 2014 :: C1.2
Sep 01 2014 :: B4.5
Aug 31 2014 :: B5.1
Aug 30 2014 :: B4.6
Aug 29 2014 :: B3.5
Aug 28 2014 :: B3.5


Check out the current Aurora Oval and activity.



If you are using software utilities such as Ace-HF, that require a "smoothed" sunspot number
(Referred to as the SSN), or the smoothed 10.7-cm flux index,
use the following predicted values in this table:

To understand more about the Maximum Usable Frequencies, and related
science, please read the MUF Basics Page.


Global HF Propagation Conditions
Global HF Propagation Conditions for 0600Z on 03 Sep, 2014
High Latitude: Fair-Normal
Middle Latitude: Normal
Low Latitude: Normal

Geomagnetic Latitude Ranges:
High: 60-90 degrees
Middle: 20-60 degrees
Low: 0-20 degrees


Global Ionospheric Map - Critical Frequencies - foF2 (Created with PropLab PRO)
Critical foF2 map (2014 June 08 at 1000 UTC)

At 0805 UTC, on 9 August 2011, a strong magnitude X6.9 X-ray flare -- the strongest yet in this current solar cycle (Cycle 24) -- erupted on the northwestern solar limb. Here is a HD Movie of the event:



Videos of Interest - Space Weather, Solar Dynamics Observatory, STEREO, and more... from the NW7US YouTube Channel. (Click on the small image to launch the video...)

Video: Voyager Finds Magnetic Foam at Solar Systems Edge
Video: Voyager Finds Magnetic Foam at Solar Systems Edge



Video: Zoom View of Prominence Eruption and X-Ray Flare - M2.5 Magnitude - June 7 2011
Video: Zoom View of Prominence Eruption and X-Ray Flare - M2.5 Magnitude - June 7 2011

Video: X-Ray Flare, Coronal Mass Ejection, Proton Storm - M2.5 Magnitude - June 7 2011
Video: X-Ray Flare, Coronal Mass Ejection, Proton Storm - M2.5 Magnitude - June 7 2011 (Close-up of the video, above)

Video: Stunning Close-up View of M3 X-Ray Flare 24 February 2011
Video: Stunning Close-up View of M3 X-Ray Flare 24 February 2011



Video: June 2011 20-meter (14-Mhz) JT65A Coverage Map of NW7US Radio Signal
Video: June 2011 20-meter (14-Mhz) JT65A Coverage Map of NW7US Radio Signal



The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Latest Solar Images
Click on an image for full-sized view





SDO - Solar Dynamics Observatory     SDO - Solar Dynamics Observatory

D Region Absorption Predictions (D-RAP) Global Map

Map, Above: Conditions in the D region of the ionosphere have a dramatic effect on high frequency (HF) communications and low frequency (LF) navigation systems. The global D Region Absorption Predictions (D-RAP) depicts the D region at high latitudes where it is driven by particles as well as low latitudes, where photons cause the prompt changes.

Note: At times, images may appear broken or missing, when SDO is working on the AIA/HMI instruments.


The NW7US Current Sunspot and Geophysical Activity Report
The observations, prognastications, and comments by NW7US
NW7US is Tomas David Hood, Propagation and Space Weather Columnist
for CQ Communications

More about Background X-rays

The hard X-ray energy present from the wavelengths of 1 to 8 Angstroms provide the most effective ionizing energy throughout all of the ionospheric layers in our atmosphere. The GEOS satellites measure these wavelengths and the resulting measurements are reported as the "background X-ray level" throughout the day. A daily average is reported, as well.

Just like X-ray flares, the background hard X-ray level is measured in watts per square meter (W/m2), reported using the categories, A, B, C, M, and X. These letters are multipliers; each class has a peak flux ten times greater than the preceding one. Within a class there is a linear scale from 1 to 9.

If one records the daily background X-ray levels for the course of a sunspot cycle, one would discover that the background X-ray levels remained at the A class level during the sunspot cycle minumum. During the rise and fall of a solar cycle, the background X-ray energy levels remained mostly in the B range. During peak solar cycle periods, the background energy reached the C and sometimes even M levels.

Armed with this information, can we discover any clues as to the current status of Sunspot Cycle 24? Below is a graph plotting the background hard X-ray energy reported by the GEOS satellites since the end of Sunspot Cycle 22. Clearly, we see a noticeable rise in Cycle 24 activity. We're seeing the energy mostly in the B level more often, supporting the view that Cycle 24 is alive and moving along toward an eventual sunspot cycle peak in several years.

Overall, the monthly average background 'hard' X-ray level is rising (as seen by the following plot), showing a change from deep solar cycle minimum. We are certainly in the rising phase of Sunspot Cycle 24. While it has been a slow up-tick over the last eighteen months, I expect to see a more rapid rise during mid to late 2011.

Background X-ray (1 to 8 Angstrom) Plot



Highlights of Solar and Geomagnetic Activity
Covering the period: 25 - 31 August 2014

Solar activity was at low to moderate levels during the period. Moderate levels were observed on 25 August due to a pair of M-flares originating from Region 2146 (N07, L=344, class/area Dki/300 on 26 August). The first was a M2/1b flare at 25/1511 UTC with associated Type II (707 km/s) and Type IV radio sweeps, a Ten cm radio burst (150 sfu), and a coronal mass ejection (CME) primarily off the west limb in SOHO/LASCO C2 imagery beginning at 25/1548 UTC. The second flare was an M3 at 25/2021 UTC which also had a CME off the west limb in SOHO/LASCO C2 imagery beginning at 25/2048 UTC. Both CMEs were determined to be directed too far west to be geoeffective. The rest of the period was populated with numerous low to mid-level C-class flares, the majority of which were from Regions 2146 and 2149 (N09, L=284, class/area Dkc/280 on 31 August).

An enhancement of the greater than 10 MeV proton flux at geosynchronous orbit was observed beginning at approximately 25/2125 UTC likely associated with the M-class flares from Region 2146. A peak flux value of 1.4 pfu (below S1-Minor) was observed at 25/2300 UTC and thereafter gradually returned to background levels by 27 August.

The greater than 2 MeV electron flux at geosynchronous orbit was at normal levels on 27 August, moderate levels on 25-26 August and again from 28-29 August. High levels were reached on 30-31 August with the flux of 1,510 pfu observed at 30/1550 UTC.

Geomagnetic field activity started at quiet levels on 25-26 August. By early on 27 August, total field increased from 5 nT to a maximum of 15 nT by 27/0848 UTC, solar wind speed slowly increased, and the Bz component went south for the majority of the day reaching a maximum of -14 nT indicative of the arrival of a pair of CMEs that were associated with flare activity from Region 2146 on 22 August. Solar wind continued to slowly increase through 29 August when it became variable between approximately 380 km/s to 480 km/s. Phi angle became mostly positive (away) by late on 27 August and remained so during the rest of the period. This was indicative of a slow transition from CME activity into positive polarity coronal hole high speed streams (CH HSS) by mid to late on 28 August. The geomagnetic field responded with mostly quiet to active conditions from 27 August through 31 August with isolated minor storm periods observed on 28-29 August. Periods of major storm levels were observed at high latitudes on 27-28 August and again on 30-31 August with an isolated severe storm period observed on 29 August.



Monthly and smoothed sunspot number - The monthly mean sunspot number (blue) and 13-month smoothed monthly sunspot number (red) for the last five cycles. You can see that this current cycle, Cycle 24, is a weak cycle, compared to the last few.

(Click to see actual size)
Monthly and smoothed sunspot number chart

Daily and monthly sunspot number (last 13 years)

Daily sunspot number (yellow), monthly mean sunspot number (blue), smoothed monthly sunspot number (red) for the last 13 years and 12-month ahead predictions of the monthly smoothed sunspot number:

SC (red dots) : prediction method based on an interpolation of Waldmeier's standard curves; It is only based on the sunspot number series.

CM (red dashes) : method (from K. Denkmayr and P. Cugnon) combining a regression technique applied to the sunspot number series with the aa geomagnetic index used as a precursor (improved predictions during the minimum phase between solar cycles).

(Click to see actual size)
Daily and monthly sunspot number (last 13 years)

What is 'Space Weather'? Click on these two information slides to view them in full size:

What is Space Weather? Slide 1 of 2 What is Space Weather? Slide 2 of 2





View of numbered sunspot regions and plages (if any)
Source: http://www.solarmonitor.org/.
(Click for large view)

Active Regions and Plages

Active sunspot regions, and plages, identified by SIDC

SIDC Solar Disc with active regions and plages


Latest GOES 15 Image of the Sun

Latest GOES-15 Image of the Sun


STEREO IMAGES
STEREO Behind Image
What is coming
SOHO EIT 195 Image
Current View
STEREO Ahead Image
What was...


Real Time Solor Wind and Aurora:

On 2014 Sep 03 0653Z: Bz: -1.3 nT
Bx: -1.0 nT | By: 4.2 nT | Total: 4.5 nT
Most recent satellite polar pass:
Centered on 09/03/2014 : 0455 UTC
Aurora Activity Level was 7 at 0455 UTC
visit noaa for latest.



[ See this current Aurora Oval Map ]

This is a video of the simulation from May 27-28, 2011, showing
the Geomagnetic disturbance caused by the solar wind




All NICT images are Copyright@NICT,
used by express, written permission from NICT








Space Weather and Propagation Forecast
Prepared by the US Dept. of Commerce, NOAA,
and the Space Weather Prediction Center

Three Day Forecast of Solar and Geomagnetic Activity
(as of 2200Z on 01 Sep 2014)

Solar Forecast:

Solar activity is expected to be low with a slight chance for an M-class flare on days one and two (02 Sep, 03 Sep) and expected to be low with a chance for M-class flares on day three (04 Sep).

Geomagnetic Forecast:

The geomagnetic field is expected to be at quiet to unsettled levels on days one, two, and three (02 Sep, 03 Sep, 04 Sep).


Forecast of Solar and Geomagnetic Activity
01 September - 27 September 2014

Solar activity is expected to be at low levels with a slight chance for M-class (R1-R2, Minor-Moderate) flaring from 01-09 September. Beginning on 10 September and lasting through the end of the forecast period, M-class flare probabilities are expected to increase to a chance as old Regions 2146, 2149, and 2151 (S08, L=253, class/area Cso/140 on 25 August) return to the visible disk.

No proton events are expected at geosynchronous orbit.

The greater than 2 MeV electron flux at geosynchronous orbit is expected to reach high levels on 01-03, 07-09, and 27 September due to CH HSS influence.

Geomagnetic field activity is expected to reach unsettled to active levels from 01-08, 13, and 25-27 September due to CH HSS activity as well as possible recurrent solar sector boundary crossings.




Real-time foF2 map from IPS (Ionospheric Prediction Service), Australian Space Weather Agency

foF2 Map from IPS, Australia

Space Weather Page



Click on image to
view larger versions

The following images
are from SOHO

C2 LASCO Image
C3 LASCO Image

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Additional Views of the Sun

Be sure to check the Date shown in each photo - is it today's date?
(click to enlarge)

Current Numbered Sunspots / MDI MagnetogramCatania Solar Disc

H-Alpha View 1H-Alpha View 2



Space Weather Information Monitor Software - sample screen shot Interested in keeping tabs on ALL of the current Space Weather information? Check out the Space Weather Information Monitor Software (SWIM) - support the NW7US / HFRadio.org Propagation Resource Center and purchase your copy of SWIM, today.

With SWIM, you can monitor, display, animate or print to your printer over 200 default space-weather related Internet resources, in real-time. You can use SWIM to expand and manage THOUSANDS of additional internet resources quickly and easily. Simply cut and paste Internet URLs of resources you find interesting and SWIM will immediately begin managing those resources for you. Retrieve the latest space weather forecasts and summary reports. Add any number of other textual reports you find on the Internet.

Find out the full details about the Space Weather Information Monitor Software (SWIM).








Purchase the STD Internet Space Weather & Radio Propagation Forecasting Course


Solar Terrestrial Dispatch (STD) is a world-leader in space weather forecasting services, as was demonstrated in late October and early November 2003 (Oler, C., "Prediction Performance of Space Weather Forecast Centers during the Extreme Space Weather Events of October and November 2003," published in the peer-reviewed scientific journal "Space Weather" by the American Geophysical Union in 2004). A copy of this paper is available here.

STD expertise is used to provide high-quality space weather forecast services to many electrical power companies across North America, guidance to spacecraft operators and consultation to many others.

STD has developed a special space weather course designed to teach individuals without any background how to predict space weather (see below). The STD Space Weather Course was the recipient of the Study-Web Academic Excellence award.

The course is available on-line as a small group of downloadable Adobe Acrobat Reader documents comprising over 630 pages of printed material (for sample pages, click here). You can therefore choose to study the material on your computer or print it out for study.

The course, if you choose the option, also includes the STD workhorse, Space Weather Information Monitor (SWIM) software, which is the most comprehensive space and weather information monitor in the world. The course (if you choose the option, below) also includes the STD's powerful and popular Proplab-Pro HF Radio Propagation Laboratory software! All software products are optional elaborate tools that will contribute to your application of the knowledge obtained through this course.

Purchasing the Course

Please choose one of the following course packages.
  • Purchase: The course alone (no software), delivered over the Internet (as a download).

      Now: $200.00 - normally $250 USD
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  • Purchase: The course with all the software, delivered over the Internet (as a download).

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NOTE: After you finish ordering, through PayPal, please allow me time to process your order. I am not always in front of my computer, so it may take a while for me to finish the processing of your order. I shall e-mail you the moment I have processed the order, and will give you specific directions on how to download the Course file(s). PLEASE BE PATIENT WITH ME!

A list of the topics covered in this home-study course include:
  • The Sun
    • Basics of the Sun
    • Sunspots
      • Types of Sunspots
      • Sunspot Magnetic Fields
    • Solar Radiation and Radio Emissions
    • Solar Cycles
    • Techniques for Modelling Solar Cycles
    • Sources of Information and Imagery
  • Interplanetary Space
    • The Solar Wind
    • Magnetic Fields
    • Heliospheric Current Sheet
    • Solar Sector Structures
  • The Earth
    • Magnetosphere
      • The quiet magnetosphere
      • The disturbed magnetosphere
      • Understanding Magnetic Indices
      • Magnetic Storms
        • Sudden Storm Commencements (SSCs)
        • Gradual Storm Commencements
      • Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs)
        • Effects on Electrical Hydro Systems
        • Effects on Other Long Conductors
    • Ionosphere
      • Formation of Ionospheric Layers
      • Factors Affecting Ionospheric Layers
  • Solar Disturbances
    • Transient Solar Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs)
      • Types and Structures of Coronal Mass Ejections
      • Understanding the Importance of CME Structures
      • Inferring CME Structures from Available Solar Data
      • Coronal Mass Ejection Detection Methods
      • Using IMPACT (software) to Aid in CME Disturbance Predictions
      • Solar Cycle Dependencies
    • Solar Flares
      • Basic Nature of Flares
      • Types of Flares
      • Flare Rating Systems
      • Significance of Proton Flares
      • Ground Level Events (GLEs)
      • Fast Transit Events
      • Interpreting Magnetograms
      • Determining Magnetic Shear and Flare Susceptability
      • Solar Flare (and Proton Flare) Prediction Techniques
      • Solar Flare Related Coronal Mass Ejection Prediction Techniques
      • Sources of Solar Flare Information
    • Solar Coronal Holes
      • Coronal Hole Basics
      • Recurrence
      • Solar Cycle Correlations
      • Associations with Near-Relativistic Electrons
      • Coronal Hole Related Disturbance Prediction Techniques
    • Filament Eruptions
      • Filaments and Prominences
      • Eruptive and Non-Eruptive Activity
      • Filament-Associated Coronal Mass Ejections
      • Filament-Related Disturbance Prediction Techniques
  • Auroral Activity
    • Basic Theory of the Northern/Southern Lights
    • Behavioral Characteristics of the Auroral Ovals
    • Sensitivity to Solar Disturbances
    • Affects on Satellite Health and Radio Communications
    • Mathematical Models of the Auroral Zones
    • Auroral Activity Prediction Techniques
    • Information Sources
  • Conditions Affecting Satellite Health
    • Atmospheric Drag
    • Surface Charging Anomalies
    • Deep Dialectric Charging Anomalies
    • Interplanetary Shocks
    • Magnetopause Crossings
  • Postulated Sun/Earth Climate Connections
    • Possible Long-Term Climatic Trends
      • Rainfall
      • Temperatures
      • Atmospheric Pressure
      • Storm Tracks
      • Ozone Correlations
    • Possible Short-Term Meteorological Trends
      • Pressure and Winds
      • Lightning
      • Storm Systems
      • Ozone Responses
  • Radio Propagation
    • Basic Theory (Non-Technical)
      • Characteristics and Components of Radio Signals
      • Understanding Plasmas
      • Importance of Electron Collisions
      • Appleton/Hartree Contributions
      • Signal Polarization and Coupling
      • Ionospheric Absorption
        • Deviative Absorption
        • Non-Deviative Absorption
      • Fading
      • Multipathing
      • Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances
      • Solar Related Disturbances
      • Structure of the Ionosphere
        • Ionospheric Layers
        • Importance of Sporadic-E
        • Effects of Spread-F
        • Solar-Cycle Dependencies
        • Models of the Ionosphere
          • Simple Mathematical Models
          • Numerical Maps
          • CCIR
          • URSI
          • The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI)
          • Others
        • Probing the Ionosphere
        • Probing Techniques
        • Probing Instruments
        • Sources of Ionosonde Information
    • Basic Ray-Tracing Concepts
      • Ordinary vs Extraordinary Signals
      • Becoming Familiar with Ray-Tracing Software
    • Ray-Tracing in Three-Dimensions
      • Ray-Tracing Software Considerations
      • Preparing for 3D Ray-Tracings
      • Performing 3D Ray-Tracings
      • Studying 3D Ray-Tracing Results
    • Vertical Radio Signal Propagation
      • Signal Reflection Behavior
      • Critical Frequencies
      • Ray-Tracing Vertically-Incident Signals
    • Oblique Radio Signal Propagation
      • Signal Refraction/Reflection Characteristics
      • Effects of Geomagnetic Activity
      • Effects of Solar Activity
      • Ray-Tracing Obliquely Incident Radio Signals
      • Determination of Maximum Usable Frequencies
        • Simple Empirical Methods
        • Ray-Tracing Techniques
      • Effects of Sporadic-E
      • Non-Great-Circle (NGC) Propagation
        • Responsible Conditions
        • Compensation Methods
        • Ray-Tracing Techniques to Analyze NGC Propagation
      • Chordal-Hop and Inter-Layer Ducting Propagation
        • Advantages and Disadvantages
        • Analysis using Ray-Tracing Techniques
      • Searching for and Exploiting Exotic Propagation Paths
        • Properties of Exotic Paths
        • Searching for Exotic Paths using 3D Ray-Tracing Techniques
        • Determining the Most Reliable Exotic Radio Paths
    • Ionospheric Disturbances
      • Solar Related Disturbances
        • Solar Flares and Related Coronal Mass Ejections
        • Coronal Holes and High Speed Solar Wind Streams
        • Filament Related Coronal Mass Ejections
        • Impact of Flare Related Radio Noise Bursts
      • Short Wave Fadeouts
      • Sudden Phase Anomalies
      • Sudden Frequency Deviations
      • Devastating Effects of Polar Cap Absorption
      • Disturbances and their Effects on Satellite Communications
  • Radio Propagation Prediction Methods
    • Short-Term Forecasting Techniques
    • Medium-Term Forecasting Techniques
    • Long-Term Forecasting Techniques
    • Sources of Forecasting Information
  • Applied Forecasting Techniques
    • Climatology
    • Pattern Recognition
    • Compiling Necessary Information
    • Exploiting Databases
    • Computer Related Aids
    • Studying Real-Life Examples
    • Developing Experience and "Intuition"
  • Field Experience
    • The STD SW Course presents you with some specific historic real-life scenarios. Using the information and techniques studied in this course, you are asked to develop your own space-weather and radio-propagation predictions. The actual real-life impacts are then studied and compared with your forecasts.
    • The Course presents you with several hypothetical (possible future) examples and ask you to develop your own forecasts.
  • Course Completed


Although this course is largely self-taught, STD will provide support if you run into difficulties. There are no prerequisites.



Check out these books on Radio Propagation:

+ The New Shortwave Propagation Handbook (Paperback) - by George Jacobs, Theodore J. Cohen, R. B. Rose. The NEW Shortwave Progagation Handbook may well be the only book you'll need on the subject of ionospheric propagation! It is a "must read" for Radio Amateurs, Shortwave Listeners, and radio communicators of any type who need to make the most productive use of the radio spectrum, regardless of the time of day, the season of the year, or the state of the sunspot cycle. It will become your ever-present companion a the operating table as you master the art of shortwave radio progagation.

+ How Radio Signals Work (Paperback) - by Jim Sinclair. This book provides a basic understanding of the way radio signals work-without becoming bogged down with the technicalities. It covers all kinds of radio signal types--including mobile communications, short-wave, satellite, and microwave. No detailed knowledge of electronics or mathematics is required. A-Z coverage of radio signals including satellites, mobile communications, and short-wave radio. No math or electronics background necessary.

+ Introduction to RF Propagation (Hardcover) - by John S. Seybold. This book provides readers with a solid understanding of the concepts involved in the propagation of electromagnetic waves and of the commonly used modeling techniques. While many books cover RF propagation, most are geared to cellular telephone systems and, therefore, are limited in scope. This title is comprehensive-it treats the growing number of wireless applications that range well beyond the mobile telecommunications industry, including radar and satellite communications.

I write the propagation columns for the following magazines:

CQ Magazine CQ Magazine America's fastest growing magazine for the active ham radio operator. CQ is the world's leading independent magazine devoted to amateur radio. For more than a half-century, CQ has been on ham radio's leading edge -- the first to promote mobile operating (in the 1950s), semiconductors (in the 1960s) and packet radio -- the original e-mail (in the 1980s). The amateur satellite program got its start with an idea in the pages of CQ!

CQ VHF Magazine CQ VHF Magazine It is back! May 2002 saw the return of this quarterly magazines that focuses on amateur radio above 50 MHz. Articles and columns target both the beginner as well as the expert.

Popular Communications Magazine Popular Communications Magazine Exciting reading for the shortwave and scanner listener. It features authoritative information on scanner monitoring of police, fire, utility and aircraft transmissions as well as short wave listening, monitoring short wave digital, fax and teletype broadcasts, cb radio, alternative radio, clandestine radio, telephones and wiretapping, bugging, surveillance, pirate broadcasters, military communications, amateur radio, satellite tv reception, radio history and nostalgia.

Monitoring Times Magazine Monitoring Times Magazine Contains news, information, and tips on getting more out of radio listening. Do you own a radio, a shortwave receiver, a scanning receiver, or a ham radio? Then Monitoring Times® is your magazine! Open a copy of MT, and you will find 92 pages of news, information, and tips on getting more out of your radio listening. In fact, it's the most comprehensive radio hobby magazine in the U.S. Packed with up-to-date information concisely written by the top writers in the field, Monitoring Times® is your foremost guide to profiles of broadcasting and communications installations; home projects; and tips on monitoring everything from air, sea, and space to distant ports of call.



Data and images courtesy of IPS Australia, NOAA, NASA, SWPC, SIDC

Layout, analysis, commentary, and certain forecasts and content is
Copyright, 2014, Tomas David Hood (NW7US), all rights reserved.
No part, except for the space weather 'banners', may be copied without express permission.

Last Update: July 29, 2014